On July 2, 1776, with the passing of the Lee Resolution, the Continental Congress declared “the United Colonies Free and Independent States.”
In a letter to his wife Abigail dated July 3, 1776, John Adams wrote from Philadelphia reflecting on what this declaration will hold for the future:
“The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America.—I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the Day of Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.
“You will think me transported with Enthusiasm but I am not.—I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States.—Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of ravishing Light and Glory. I can see that the End is more than worth all the Means. And that Posterity will tryumph in that Days Transaction, even altho We should rue it, which I trust in God We shall not.”
Read the full letter: John Adams to Abigail Adams, 3 July 1776
John Adams, Unknown Artist, c. 1815, courtesy National Portrait Gallery USA